An effective power transmission and distribution system is only as good as its’ constituent equipment. Several specialized types of equipment are used in the distribution and transmission of electrical power from the generating plant to the consumer’s home or business. This article will go over the significant electrical distribution and transmission equipment and their respective uses.
An electrical sub-station is one of the essential components of the electricity transmission and distribution system. Along with many other purposes, substations can step voltage up or down. The substation serves as the primary connection between high-voltage transmission lines and low-voltage power distribution systems.
A substation's principal role is to receive electrical power from a single-voltage system and convert it to a different voltage level. Electric power will travel through many substations at varying voltage levels between the generating station and the customer.
Switching, protection, and control equipment, as well as transformers, are commonly found in substations. Circuit breakers are used in a big substation to terminate any short circuits or overload currents that may develop on the network.
For distribution circuit protection, smaller distribution stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses. Although a power plant may have a substation nearby, substations do not normally contain generators. A substation may also include other devices such as capacitors, voltage regulators, and reactors.
A typical sub-station is divided into the primary power line side and the secondary power line side. Each side is equipped with at least one of the following components.
A power distribution system is in charge of delivering electrical power to the end-user and then dispersing it across the home or business.
Wires and cables included in raceways provide the majority of power distribution to business and industrial loads. The conductors, which supply the power to the various equipment throughout a facility, are held on these raceways.
Feeders and branch circuits are the conductors that transmit current to the electrical load devices in a structure. Feeder lines provide electricity to branches that are connected to them. Primary feeder lines can either be underground or overhead. Overhead wires are typically selected since they allow for future expansion. Underground systems are more expensive but are preferable for their aesthetic qualities. Secondary feeders are connected to the major feeder lines to supply power to various portions of the building.
Fuses and switches connect or disconnect segments of the power distribution system or the entire system. The safety switch is a simple sort of switch. This switch is housed in a metal cage and controlled by a handle on the outside. Although safety switches are solely intended to turn a circuit on or off, fuses are frequently installed in the same enclosure as the safety switch.
A service entry is a point where electrical power is provided into a building from overhead power lines or underground cables. High-current conductors and insulators, disconnect switches, protective equipment for each load circuit connected to the central power system, and the meters needed to measure power, voltage, current, and frequency are all examples of equipment used for an electrical service entrance of a building.
The electricity system must also be grounded at the service entrance site. A grounding electrode, which is a metal rod driven deep into the ground, accomplishes this. This grounding elect is securely connected to the grounding conductor.
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